The present evidence suggests that, in addition to its unique properties, tissue exhibits essentially all the solid-state properties of ordinary materials. Since the techniques needed to study impure, inhomogeneous, and wet materials are largely developed, it is not surprising that metals or plastics are much more studied than brain or lung tissue. Despite this, the door has been opened enough to reveal the existence of solid-state properties of tissue that may explain the reaction of living organisms to electromagnetic fields (EMFs1), and may even provide the physical basis of the phenomena that are unique to living organisms.

Although present knowledge of the properties of the tissue is not sufficient to permit the predictions of specific biological effects of exposure to EMFs, neither does the present knowledge preclude any specific effects. Thus, to learn what would happen when an organism is exposed to a given EMF under specific conditions, it is necessary to do the experiment. In the succeeding chapters we describe a large number of such studies.


1Throughout the book we use this to denote electric fields, magnetic fields, and electromagnetic radiation when there is no intention to distinguish among them.

Chapter 4 Index